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Electric Vehicle Technology
Electric Vehicles uses electric motors as technology for the propulsion of the vehicle. The ambit of electric vehicle includes, roadways, railways, aircrafts, spacecraft, and there are many more possibilities which can be accomplished by the same in near future. EVs embarked its endeavour in 19th century, when electricity was one of the most preferrable ways for the generation of motor vehicle propulsion, and the level of comfort and ease of operation was comparatively better than that of gasoline cars at that time. Earlier the electric vehicles only dominated cars and trucks, until other modes of transportation also started using this type of electric vehicle technology.
The Project Drawdown Project (a climate change mitigation project initiated by Paul Hawken and climate activist Amanda Joy Ravenhall) has described it as one in the 100 best contemporary solution. This was a brief regarding the Electric Vehicles, now let's hop on to the core of the working of these electric locomotives:
Evolution of Electric Vehicles

The inception in technology of Electric Vehicles began with the Internal Combustion Engine- which used gasoline and pressure to propel the vehicles. Though being well-etched and reliable, the gasoline was quite expensive at that time and the main focus of technology should be the accessibility of technology to everyone, however here it wasn't the case, since the prices of gasoline were on the higher side and that too it was a compulsion or else the vehicle won't even start on the first place.

To counter this problem, Electric Vehicle Drivetrain was introduced where the electric vehicles worked on the pressure and electromagnetism, which propelled the vehicles to run smoothly. Apart from these technologies, parallelly there was another type of vehicle too, which were Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEC), which had a hybrid system of both normal charging and gasoline as well, which means that if you are driving and you get out of charge, you can fill up your vehicle with gasoline, which won't take a toll on your pocket.

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle was the first ever technology to reach in hands of people. HEV's such Toyota Prius and Lexus CT-200-H, were the most renowned vehicles when it came to the fuel efficiency. These vehicles have a cumulative power sharing of both internal combustion engine with a small battery for stacking the electricity. This electricity comes from harnessing the energy though regenerative braking (a method where the energy is extracted from the parts of brakes and is stored to be reused). This use of regeneration of the energy is one of the causes of being the most fuel-efficient than a typical internal combustion engine.

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle, just like original hybrid electric vehicle which is propelled though a combination of internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Though it has a larger battery as opposed to the hybrid one that can be conveniently charged by a charger offered by the companies. This helps the vehicle to run for a longer period of time and reducing your dependence on gasoline, which in turn depletes your expenses as well.

The Last, but not the least Battery Electric Vehicle technology, which includes no internal combustion engine to begin with. This technology entails a battery and an electric-motors and has a huge battery for all types of vehicles, though size of battery would vary based on the size of the vehicle. It's the most energy efficient technology and is used in today's day and age as well.

Conundrums faced by the EV Technology
  • The battery instilled inside an EV is made up of Lithium-ion and we all know Lithium-ion doesn't go well with extreme heating conditions and either melts the battery or simply explodes. We have seen these kinds of adversities in the countries with extreme climatic conditions, such as India. In India we get to here more often the blasts in smartphones or ear buds, which raises a concern that is lithium-ion safe and if we need an alternative what is it? And is it safe?

  • Another challenge is the number of electric vehicles is that the mindset of people still is not that much established to buy an electric car. For Example, Tesla Model 3, an all-electric and is one of the UK's best-selling cars, however only 1.1% of the new cars were sold in 2019. Now I do know that things might have changed now, however certain inhibitions regarding the purchase of an electric vehicles are still there.

  • Lack of charging Infrastructure in many countries right is another major concern. Now, I do agree that companies do provide the chargers, however if suddenly you have to reach a location far away or if you are stuck in traffic for a longer time frame, resultantly your battery will deplete and will be stuck there without any power source.

  • Right now, there are very limited vehicle options, if we look at the EV market, there are highly 3-4 EV's in international market and India there are EV's manufacture yet except for OLA, and Tata in cars, and rest of them comes in the motorbike segment and scooty.

After this whole analysis. I would like to conclude by illustrating the fact that even after such mammoth challenges, EV can pave its path to the future and engineers are already finding different alternatives to the lithium-ion with sodium-ion batteries, which can withstand a heat of even 60 degrees, hydro and solar powered electric vehicles, which will have battery which could be charged by hydro or solar powered electricity. After looking at all these changes, I can say foreshore, that EV is going to be the next big thing in terms of sustainability.